Between Football Fever and Human Rights Violations
The Corona pandemic has been restricted daily life for over a year, and there are only a few free time activities that distract us from it. Football, the sport of kicking balls into goals, not American football, is an activity that can at least be watched on TV for weekly entertainment, and the Football World Cup 2022 in Qatar poses a big highlight for four billion global football fans.
However, it has most likely been forgotten or is not known by the fans that the World Cup in Qatar is, unfortunately, an example of serious human rights violations. I am a huge football fan and a passionate player myself; therefore, I will try to connect my favourite hobby and our studies SSMS under this important issue by showing two different views of the migrant workers’ situation in Qatar.
Let’s start with some background information. Qatar is a small nation in the Middle East with an area of only 11,000 square kilometres (that equals approximately a quarter of the area The Netherlands covers). In 2010, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) surprisingly nominated Qatar as the host country of the World Cup in 2022. This nomination was questioned by many due to the circumstances that Qatar is a very small country with no notable football history, it is in the desert and high temperature are not beneficial for players and fans, there exist only three football stadiums which must be renovated, and nine further stadiums must be built from scratch.
Qatar ambitiously announced to be able to master the construction of nine new, modern stadiums until 2022, and this is the point where a questionable situation drifted into human rights violations. Qatar has only three million domestic citizens, and therefore, a quite limited workforce; most workers are migrants attracted from Nepal, India, Bangladesh, China, or Sri Lanka. Usually, these workers are protected by the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights Articles 23 and 24 (1948) which guarantee inter alia “just and favourable conditions of work”, “equal pay for equal work”, and “the right to rest and leisure”. However, according to Amnesty International, these rights are extensively violated on Qatari construction sites.
SSMS and Health and Safety at the Workplace
On the Football World Cup’s official website, the Qatari government presents colourful pictures of happily smiling workers, and it is always stressed that workers are protected through the country’s own Worker’s Welfare Standards. This seems especially striking to me because I learned in SSMS in the Quality Management course, thanks to Mr Christian, that a global standard for occupational health and safety already exists, namely ISO 45001. Developing an own national standard instead of using already existing ones involves a lot of effort. International ISO standards are widely accepted, recognised and comparable, and organizations using them can easily be audited and evaluated based on the standards. Through developing individual standards adapted to their own workplace situations, Qatar must conduct audits on its own because they do not have international comparison possibilities. I will leave it to the reader what to think about this approach, and whether Qatar wants to be extra thorough with ensuring the workers’ rights and well-being or whether they want to circumvent international controls.
Qatar vs. Amnesty International
I would like to compare the picture that the Qatari government draws, with another picture shown by Amnesty International, an organisation fighting human rights violations. The following parts are solely citations from the Qatari and the Amnesty International websites.
Accommodations: Clean, comfortable, and well equipped vs. Crowded, dirty, and unsafe
Qatar: “Workers [have] access to recreational facilities at their accommodation sites. We provide sporting amenities, including football pitches, where they can play sport with their neighbours, helping them to stay healthy and bond with other workers” (see Figure 1 & 2).
Amnesty International: “Workers often live in cramped, dirty and unsafe accommodation. We saw men sleeping on bunk beds in rooms for eight or more people. But Qatari law and the Workers’ Welfare Standards allow for a maximum of four beds per room and prohibit bed sharing and the use of bunk beds” (see Figures 3 & 4).
Workers’ Voices: Heard as crucial part of the project vs. Repressed, threatened, and intimidated
Qatar: “Communication with our workers is crucial. Our team takes time to get to know them, discussing their cares, worries or grievances. […] we always make sure our workers know we are available for them. We know what they want because we ask them” (see Figures 5 & 6).